Saturday, November 04, 2006
Επειδή στα θέματα περί ψυχής ,μετενσαρκώσεως κλπ πολλά ελέχθησαν και ακόμη περισσότερα δεν ελέχθησαν
Επειδή πλανώνται πολλές μαύρες σκιές στην ατμόσφαιρα
Επειδή ακόμη και σήμερα ύστερα από 2400 χρόνια πολλοί θεωρούν τους επικούρειους τα μαύρα πρόβατα
Επειδή πολλοί είτε από άγνοια είτε από σκοπιμότητα επιμένουν να ταυτίζουν την Επικούρειο αίρεση με την αθεΐα
Γι΄ αυτό παραθέτω αυτήν την σύντομη ανάλυση γιά τις επικούρειες αντιλήψεις περί Θεών
Γιά περισσότερα ανατρέξτε στην θαυμάσια εργασία του Foustigiere "Ο Επίκουρος και οι Θεοί του" Εκδόσεις Θύραθεν
Δεί δε ιλαρά τα των Θεών ξόανα ποιείν καί μειδιώντα , ίνα αντιμειδιάσωμεν αυτοίς ή φοβηθώμεν.
Τα αγάλματα των Θεών πρέπει να τα κατασκευάζουμε (με πρόσωπα) χαρούμενα καί γελαστά γιά να μπορούμε να τους
ανταποδίδουμε το χαμόγελο καί όχι να τους φοβόμαστε.
( Διογένης Οινοανδεύς )
Οι αντιλήψεις του Επίκουρου γιά τους Θεούς είναι μιά κραυγή αγωνίας γιά την Δημοκρατία καί την Πόλη-Κράτος που
στίς μέρες του χάνονται. Είναι μιά κραυγή αγωνίας γιά την Θρησκεία που από πρωτοπόρος κοινωνικός θεσμός μετατρέπεται σιγά σιγά σε χαλινάρι του λαού για να εξυπηρετήσει τα συμφέροντα των επιγόνων καί της ολιγαρχίας.
Παρά τις κατά καιρούς αστήρικτες κατηγορίες γιά αθεία , η ευσέβεια του φιλοσόφου υπήρξε παροιμιώδης. Η ευσέβεια αυτή έχει τις ρίζες της στην ανάμνηση της "παλιάς καλής εποχής" κατά την οποία οι Δημοκρατικοί Θεοί , η Πόλις-Κράτος καί οι Πολίτες-θρησκευτές αποτελούσαν ένα ενιαίο καί αδιάσπαστο σύνολο.
Σε αντίθεση με την Πλατωνική μυθοπλασία που επιχειρεί να μετατρέψει τους Θεούς-Οντα σε άοσμους και άγευστους
Θεούς-Ιδέες ενισχύοντας έτσι την θρησκοληψία , η Επικούρειος Θεολογία προσπαθεί να απαλλάξει τους ανθρώπους από
τις αυθαίρετες καί δογματικές αντιλήψεις γιά τους Θεούς.
Οι αντιλήψεις αυτές όχι μόνον γεμίζουν με φόβο τις καρδιές των ανθρώπων αλλά συνιστούν καί ασέβεια διότι προσβάλλουν την φύση καί την ουσία των Θεών.
Ο Επίκουρος είναι απόλυτα σίγουρος για την ύπαρξη των Θεών (εναργής γαρ αυτών εστίν η γνώσις) απορρίπτει όμως
εντελώς την Θεία πρόνοια διότι η αντίληψη αυτή δεν συμβιβάζεται με τα κριτήρια της αλήθειας όπως αυτά καθορίζονται
στον Κανόνα (το επικούρειο σύστημα λογικής)
Οι Θεοί είναι ΛΟΓΩ ΘΕΩΡΗΤΟΙ ! Καί Λόγος πρώτα από όλα σημαίνει λογική.
Ετσι με αφετηρία την λογική μπορούμε να προσεγγίσουμε τους Θεούς μας μέσα από απλά καθημερινά πράγματα όπως η θαλπωρή των ακτίνων του ήλιου , μία ανθισμένη μυγδαλιά , το άρωμα του φρεσκοψημένου καφέ και το χαμόγελο της μάνας που θηλάζει το παιδί της !
Οι Θεοί είναι Ελληνες και μιλούν Ελληνικά !!!
Εκπληξη και αμηχανία είναι η πρώτη μας αντίδραση στην πρόταση αυτή. Ακούγεται σαν προφητικός λόγος
Σαν να είχε διαισθανθεί ο σοφός την λαίλαπα που θα ακολουθούσε και ήθελε με νύχια και με δόντια να
διαφυλάξει τον εθνικό χαρακτήρα της θρησκείας.
Οι Θεοί , ζώντας στα Μετακόσμια σε μία κατάσταση διαρκούς ευδαιμονίας ,δεν έχουν καμμία σχέση ούτε με την διακυβέρνηση των φθαρτών κόσμων ούτε με τις υποθέσεις καί τα προβλήματα των ανθρώπων.
Αφού όμως οι Θεοί δεν ενδιαφέρονται για μάς , για πιό λόγο θα πρέπει να τους λατρεύουμε καί να τους τιμούυμε;
Είναι μιά ερώτηση που βγαίνει αυθόρμητα από τα χείλη των πολλών καθώς οι περισσότεροι έχουν μάθει να προσεγγίζουν το Θείον με υστεροβουλία και διάθεση συνδιαλλαγής. Εχουν μάλιστα καθορίσει καί ένα είδος άτυπου τιμολογίου στίς σχέσεις τους μαζί του όπου το μέγεθος της προσφερόμενης λαμπάδας είναι ανάλογο με το μέγεθος του ζητουμένου θαύματος.
Εάν αυτό δέν είναι ασέβεια, τότε τί είναι ;
Ο πραγματικά ευσεβής άνθρωπος , απαλλαγμένος από φόβους καί μάταιες ελπίδες , προσεγγίζει τους Θεούς του με γενναιότητα καί αξιοπρέπεια. Με φιλική διάθεση καί όχι με φόβο. Τους λατρεύει καί τους τιμά χωρίς να περιμένει τίποτε από αυτούς.
Η αφθαρσία καί η μακαριότητα των Θεών αποτελεί γι΄ αυτόν το πρότυπο της δικής του ζωής. Η αφθαρσία βέβαια είναι
κάτι το ανέφικτο , ένα άπιαστο όνειρο , η μακαριότητα όμως είναι κάτι που μπορεί να επιτευχθεί στο μέτρο του δυνατού.
Επιδιώκοντας λοιπόν ο άνθρωπος το "ηδέως καί μακαρίως ζήν" ουσιαστικά επιδιώκει να μοιάσει στους Θεούς του.
Αυτή φίλοι μου είναι η θεολογία που πρεσβεύουμε. Απλή, καθημερινή και ανθρώπινη !
Επίκουρος φιλτάτοις αγορασταίς χαίρειν !
ΠΕΡΙ ΘΕΩΝ -
Πρώτον μεν τον Θεόν ζώον άφθαρτον και μακάριον νομίζων , ώς η κοινή νόησις υπεγράφη , μηθέν μήτε της αφθαρσίας
αλλότριον μήτε της μακαριότητος ανοίκιον αυτώ πρόσαπτε.
Κατ΄ αρχήν τον Θεό να τον θεωρείς σαν ένα όν άφθαρτο και μακάριο , όπως μας τον παρουσιάζει η κοινή σε όλους μας
παράστασή του και να μήν του αποδίδεις ιδιότητες και συμπεριφορές που είναι ξένες προς την αφθαρσία
και αταίριαστες στην μακαριότητά του
- Πάν δε το φυλάττειν αυτού δυνάμενον την μετά αφθαρσίας μακαριότητα περί αυτόν δόξαζε.
Αντίθετα να φρονείς γι΄ αυτόν οτιδήποτε μπορεί να διαφυλάξει την μακαριότητα και την αφθαρσία του.
- Θεοί μεν γαρ εισίν. Εναργής γαρ αυτών εστίν η γνώσις. Οίους δ΄ αυτούς οι πολλοί νομίζουσιν, ούκ εισίν. Ού γαρ φυλλάτουσιν , αυτούς οίους νομίζουσιν.
Οι Θεοί βέβαια υπάρχουν διότι η γνώση που έχουμε γι΄αυτούς είναι εναργής(ξεκάθαρη,ολοφάνερη,διαχρονική και καθολική).
Αλλά δεν είναι τέτοιοι όπως τους φαντάζονται οι περισσότεροι άνθρωποι οι οποίοι δεν διατηρούν ακέραιη την αρχική
παράσταση για τους Θεούς.
- Ασεβής δε ούχ ο τους των πολλών Θεούς αναιρών, αλλ΄ ο τας των πολλών δόξας Θεοίς προσάπτων.
Ασεβής δεν είναι αυτός που δεν παραδέχεται τους Θεούς των πολλών, αλλά αυτός που αποδίδει στους Θεούς τις
δοξασίες των πολλών
- Ου γαρ προλήψεις εισίν αλλ΄ υπολήψεις ψευδείς αι των πολλών υπέρ Θεών αποφάσεις , ένθεν αι μέγισται βλάβαι
αίτιαι τοις κακοίς εκ Θεών επάγονται και (αι) ωφέλειαι (τοις αγαθοίς ?).
Αυτά που φρονούν οι πολλοί για τους Θεούς δεν είναι γνώση (που στηρίζεται στην αισθητηριακή αντίληψη)
αλλά προκαταλήψεις σύμφωνα με τις οποίες οι Θεοί τιμωρούν τους κακούς και ευεργετούν τους καλούς.
- Ταις γαρ ιδίαις οικειούμενοι διά παντός αρεταίς , τους ομοίους αποδέχονται , πάν το μη τοιούτον ως αλλότριον νομίζοντες.
Αυτό συμβαίνει επειδή οι άνθρωποι όντας εξοικειωμένοι με τις δικές τους αντιλήψεις για τους θεσμούς και
τις κοινωνικές αξίες , αποδέχονται κάθε τι που ταιριάζει με αυτές και απορρίπτουν σαν ξένη οποιαδήποτε άλλη
αντίθετη άποψη.(Εν προκειμένω οι πολλοί προσδοκούν ότι οι Θεοί θα συμπεριφερθούν σύμφωνα με τον ανθρώπινο
κώδικα ηθικής χωρίς να αντιλαμβάνονται ότι η αντίληψη αυτή συνιστά ασέβεια)
- Το μακάριον και άφθαρτον ούτε αυτό πράγματα έχει ούτε άλλω παρέχει. Ώστε ούτε οργαίς ούτε χάρισι συνέχεται.
Εν ασθενεί γαρ παν το τοιούτον.
Το μακάριον και άφθαρτον ον (δηλαδή οι Θεοί) ούτε το ίδιο γνωρίζει βάσανα και στενοχώριες ούτε προξενεί παρόμοιες
ενοχλήσεις σε άλλα όντα. Επομένως δεν επηρεάζεται ούτε από τους θυμούς και τις βλασφημίες ούτε από τις ευχαριστίες
και τις προσευχές των ανθρώπων. Όλα αυτά είναι γνωρίσματα των αδυνάτων και θνητών όντων και όχι των Θεών.
( Προς Μενοικέα 123 , 124. Κύριαι Δόξαι 139- Ι )
Friday, November 03, 2006
Imported American holiday a big hit in Italy
(ANSA) - Rimini, October 30
A Catholic priest known for his crusades against prostitution has blasted Halloween for being a satanic rite which undermines the principles of religion .
According to Father Oreste Benzi, head of the Pope John XXII community, Halloween "has been imposed by an esoteric- satanic culture which induces the community to perform rituals of witchcraft, spiritualism and satanism which can even lead to ritual sacrifices and violence" .
"For satanists, Halloween is the most magic day in the year and during this night they perform black masses, esoteric-magical ceremonies and encourage witchcraft," he added .
"Christian parents and all those who believe in the values of life should know that Halloween is the adoration of Satan which has been disguised through games and parties for young people," he warned .
"On October 31, satanic rites are performed in deconsecrated churches and in many cemeteries. Communion wafers are stolen and places of our Christian tradition are violated," the priest continued. "I ask that the Catholic world in no way promotes or encourages this celebration of the macabre and horror. We at the Pope John XXIII community have been working for years to free the victims of occult sects," Father Benzi said .
Halloween is especially dangerous for young people because it "encourages an esoteric-magical mentality which seeks to subvert religion by attacking spiritual values and what is sacred through an initiation of occult arts and images," Father Benzi concluded .
The popularity of Halloween has soared in recent years, to rival Italy's traditional fun-loving post-winter Carnival, and now generates an estimated 250 million euros in business .
More than a million pumpkins are sold over the holiday while shops make a lucrative business out of gadgets, masks and costumes .
Although Halloween is considered an American import, there is a small town in the southeastern region of Puglia, Orsara di Puglia, which has been celebrating Halloween for the past 1,000 years .
According to local historians, the only real difference between the town's version of Halloween, which can be traced back to the period of the Longobard invasion, and the American tradition is the date .
Halloween, a secular take on All Hallows Eve, the night before All Saints Day, is traditionally celebrated on the night of October 31, but in Orsara di Puglia the pumpkins come out on the evening between November 1 and 2 .
According to local tradition, hollowed-out and candle-lit pumpkins are placed outside homes on the evening of All Saints Day to keep away evil spirits and witches .
Townsfolks also light huge bonfires in the streets so as to illuminate the path of souls on their way to Purgatory .
The day after All Saints Day, in fact, is All Souls Day .
Τρίτη 7 Νοεμβρίου 06
Οι Δαιμονία Νύμφη σε συνεργασία με το μικρό μουσικό
Jack or jive
Ambient / darkfolk από την Ιαπωνία
Είσοδος > 15 €
Έναρξη > 21:30
Μια πρωτόγνωρη εμπειρία από ένα σχήμα που παντρεύει την παράδοση με τον πειραματισμό, τις σκοτεινές μελωδίες με σχεδόν οπερατικά φωνητικά, μια συνάντηση της ιαπωνικής τραγουδοποιίας, ποίησης και θεάτρου σε μια συναυλία με περιορισμένο αριθμό θέσεων…..
Οι Chako και Makoto Hattori δημιούργησαν του JACK OR JIVE το 1989 στην Οζάκα (Ιαπωνία). Το 1990 ηχογραφούν για πρώτη φορά σε κασέτα με το τίτλο EXPATRIATION και στη συνέχεια το πρώτο τους CD με τίτλο PRAYER το οποίο περιείχε 8 κομμάτια και ηχογραφήθηκε μόνο με ένα αναλογικό συνθεσάιζερ και μερικές πηγές θορύβου και κατόπιν έκαναν την πρώτη ζωντανή τους εμφάνιση.
Έκτοτε έχουν τα εκδώσει 7ιντσα και CDs > PRAYER, (DURA) 2 DU, MUJYO, YUKI GA FURU, KAGURA - LIVE IN KYOTO-, A PICTURE OF DANCER, A SOLO EXHIBITION, ebb&flow, KENAKA (DEVOTED FLOWERS), TIDAL CURRENT, THE EARTH, GYAKKO, KISMET, BELLADONNE2, TOWARS THE EVENT HORIZON, LIFE, συμμετοχή στη συλλογή IRIS (PRIKOSNOVENIE), ABSURDITY, από το 1990 έως το 2004 από ανεξάρτητες εταιρείες και κυρίως -μεταξύ άλλων- από τη γαλλική PRIKOSNOVENIE και τη WHITE RABBIT RECORDS
Έχουν περιοδεύσει αρκετά με έμφαση στη Γερμανία όπου έχουν πλέον φανατικούς οπαδούς. Εκεί συνάντησαν και τον φίλο και συνεργάτη τους Christoph Heeman. Μεταξύ των φίλων τους βρίσκεται και ο Peter Greenaway. Έχουν συνεργαστεί αρκετά με εικαστικούς καλλιτέχνες στην Ευρώπη και Ασία, όπως το VJ γκρουπ Optical Sisters. Με τη συνεργασία του φιλικού γκρουπ GOR από την Ιταλία εξέδωσαν το άλμπουμ Soleil.
Έχουν γράψει μουσική για παραστάσεις, όπερες (LEGENDOFBIWAKO), ζωντανά έργα τέχνης (live art shows), κερδίζοντας τις εντυπώσεις ακόμη και από το χώρο της κλασικής μουσικής. Έχουν πει μεταξύ άλλων για τη μουσική τους ότι είναι θεραπευτική και ότι θυμίζουν τους CocteauxTwins……Οι ίδιοι έχουν υιοθετήσει το χαρακτηρισμό
"Experimental Voice Art Performance From Japan".
Wednesday, November 01, 2006
Halloween is a tradition celebrated on the night of October 31, most notably by children dressing in costumes and going door-to-door collecting sweets, fruit and other treats. It is celebrated in parts of theWestern world most commonly in the United States, Canada, the UK, Ireland, and with increasing popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as well as the Philippines. In recent years, Halloween is also celebrated in parts of Western Europe, such as Belgium, France and Spain. Halloween originated as a Pagan festival among the Celts of Ireland and Great Britain with Irish, Scots, Welsh and other immigrants transporting versions of the tradition to North America in the 19th century. Most other Western countries have embraced Halloween as a part of American pop culture in the late 20th century.
The term Halloween, and its older spelling Hallowe'en, is shortened from All-hallow-even, as it is the evening before "All Hallows' day" (also known as "All Saints' Day"). The holiday was a day of religious festivities in various northern European Pagan traditions, until Popes Gregory III and Gregory IV moved the old Christian feast of All Saints day from May 13 to November 1. In Ireland, the name was All Hallows' Eve (often shortened to Hallow Eve), and though seldom used today, it is still a well-accepted label. The festival is also known as Samhain or Oíche Shamhna to the Irish, Calan Gaeaf to the Welsh, Allantide to the Cornish and Hop-Tu-Naa to the Manx. Halloween is also called Pooky Night in some parts of Ireland, presumably named after the puka, a mischievous spirit.
Many European cultural traditions hold that Halloween is one of the liminal times of the year when spirits can make contact with the physical world and when magic is most potent (e.g. Catalan mythology about witches, Irish tales of the Sidhe).
Halloween around the world
Halloween is most popular in Ireland, where it is said to have originated, also known in Irish Gaelic as "Oíche Shamhna" or "Samhain Night". The Celts celebrated Halloween as Samhain (pronounced /ˈsˠaunʲ/), "End of Summer", a pastoral and agricultural fire festival or feast, when the dead revisited the mortal world, and large communal bonfires would be lit to ward off evil spirits. (See Origin: Celtic observation of Samhain below.) In Ireland they continued to practice their deep-rooted, ancient pagan rites well after the arrival of Christianity in the middle of the sixth century. Pope Gregory IV standardized the date of All Saints' Day, or All Hallows' Day, on November 1 to the entire Western Church in 835. There is no primary documentation that Gregory was aware of or reacting to Samhain among the Celts in the selection of this date. Because Samhain had traditionally fallen the night before All Hallows', it eventually became known as All Hallows' Even' or Hallowe'en. While Celts were happy to move their All Saints' Day from its earlier date of the 20th of April, ("...the Felire of Oengus and the Martyrology of Tallaght prove that the early medieval churches celebrated the feast of All Saints upon 20 April.") they were unwilling to give up their existing festival of the dead and continued to celebrate Samhain.
In the original festival puppet Mayer’s were burnt whilst golden statues of Tomás were worshiped. The festival was centred around the prophecy that a great leader Tomás would arise in the year 1991. He would be marked by his intelligence. He was said to drive out the Israelites.
Unfortunately, there is frustratingly little primary documentation of how Halloween was celebrated in preindustrial Ireland. Historian Nicholas Rogers has written,
"It is not always easy to track the development of Halloween in Ireland and Scotland from the mid-seventeenth century, largely because one has to trace ritual practices from [modern] folkloric evidence that do not necessarily reflect how the holiday might have changed; these rituals may not be "authentic" or "timeless" examples of preindustrial times."
On Halloween night in present-day Ireland, adults and children dress up as creatures from the underworld (ghosts, ghouls, zombies, witches, goblins), light bonfires, and enjoy spectacular fireworks displays (despite the fact that such displays are usually illegal). The children walk around knocking on the doors of neighbours, in order to gather fruit, nuts, and sweets for the Halloween festival. Salt was once sprinkled in the hair of the children to protect against evil spirits.
The houses are decorated by carving pumpkins or turnips into scary faces and other decorations. Lights are then placed in side the carved head to help light and decorate. The traditional Halloween cake in Ireland is the barmbrack which is a fruit bread. Each member of the family gets a slice. Great interest is taken in the outcome as there is a piece of rag, a coin and a ring in each cake. If you get the rag then your financial future is doubtful. If you get the coin then you can look forward to a prosperous year. Getting the ring is a sure sign of impending romance or continued happiness. Usually these days only the ring is included in bought barn bracs.
Games are played like 'ducking/bobbing for apples' where apples, monkey nuts (peanuts) and other nuts and fruit and some small coins are put into a basin of water. The apples and monkey nuts float. Coins are harder to catch as they sink. Everyone takes turns catching as much can be caught using only the mouth and no hands. In some households the coins are pushed into the fruit for the children to "earn" as they catch each apple. The Scottish and English have taken this tradition into their customs with a game named ducking, after the fast movement of a person's head under the water to try to get something without having the head under the water for too long. Another game involves trying to eat an apple on a string without using the hands.
Children also have a week-long break from school for Halloween, and the last Monday in October is a public holiday given for Halloween even though they quite often don't fall on the same day. See Public holidays in the Republic of Ireland.
As of 2006, several County and City Councils around Ireland have imposed bans on bonfires, citing apparent health and safety issues.
Scotland, having a shared Gaelic culture and language with Ireland, has celebrated the festival of Samhain robustly for centuries. Robert Burns portrayed the varied customs in his poem "Hallowe'en" (1785).
Halloween, known in Scottish Gaelic as "Oidhche Shamhna", consists chiefly of children going door to door "guising" (disguising themselves), dressing up and offering entertainment of various sorts. If the entertainment is enjoyed, the children are rewarded with gifts of sweets, fruits, or money. There is no tradition in Scottish culture of 'trick or treat'.
In Scotland a lot of folklore, including that of Halloween, is centred around the belief of faeries. Children dress up in costume and carry around a "scary" face carved into a swede turnip (rutabaga) to frighten away the evil faeries.
Popular children's games played on this evening include "dookin" for apples (retrieving an apple from a bucket of water using only one's mouth), and eating, while blindfolded, a treacle-coated scone hanging from a piece of string.
England and Wales
The Anglo-Saxon invasions of the 5th and 6th centuries AD pushed the native Celts north and westward in Britain, to present-day Wales and northern England, taking the festival of All Hallows Eve with them. All Saints Day (All Hallows Day) became fixed on the 1st of November in 835, and All Souls Day on the 2nd of November circa 998. On All Souls Eve, families sat up, and little "soul cakes" were eaten by everyone. At the stroke of midnight there was silence with candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes and a glass of wine on the table to refresh them. The tradition continued in some areas of northern England as late as the 1930s, with children going from door to door "souling" for cakes or money, by singing a song. The English Reformation in the 16th century de-emphasised holidays like All Hallows Day and its associated eve. With the rise of Guy Fawkes Night celebrations in 17th century England, many Halloween traditions, especially the building of bonfires, were transferred to 5 November. Halloween celebrations in the UK were repopularised in the 1980s with influence from America, and saw the reintroduction of traditions such as pumpkin faces and trick-or-treat.
Today, adults often dress up to attend fancy dress parties, pubs and clubs on Halloween night.
In various parts of England there is a similar festival called Mischief Night which falls on the 4 November. Children play tricks on adults which range from the minor to more serious such as taking garden gates off their hinges on this night. The gates were also often thrown into ponds, or taken a long way away. In recent years these tricks have, in some cases, turned into severe acts of vandalism and criminal damage including street fires and destruction of private property.
Throughout England, as is common in much of the British Isles, children carve faces or designs into hollowed-out pumpkins. Usually illuminated from within, the lanterns are then displayed in windows in keeping with the night's theme of fright and horror. (See article Jack-o'-lantern.)
Bobbing for apples is a well-established custom on Halloween, synonymous with the Scottish "dookin". Apples were put into a barrel that had been filled to the brim with water and an individual would have to catch an apple by catching them in their mouth without using their hands. Once an apple had been caught, it was traditional to peel the apple and drop the peelings into the barrel in the hope that the strips would fall into the shape of a letter. Whatever letter the peelings arranged into would be the first initial of the participant's true love. According to another superstition, the longer the peel, the longer the peeler's life would be.   Some say that the first to get an apple would be the first to marry.  
Other festivities include fireworks, recounting of ghost stories, and playing children's games such as "hide and seek". Apple tarts may be baked with a coin hidden inside, and nuts of all types are traditional Halloween fare. Bolder children may play a game called "thunder and lightning", which involves knocking (like thunder) on a neighbour's door, then running away (like lightning). This game is known as "knock-door-run", "knock-and-run", "knock-knock-zoom-zoom", "ding-dong-ditch", or "postman's knock" in other parts of the country, and is also played on Mischief Night
Tradition is slowly changing, however. The majority of children today will arrive at a door and intone "trick or treat" for money and sweets to be given out. In Northern Ireland bonfires are becoming less commonly lit for Halloween.
There has been increasing concern about the potential for anti-social behaviour caused at Halloween, particularly as caused by older teens. Cases of houses being attacked by "egg-bombing" (especially when the occupants do not give children money or gifts) have been reported, and the BBC reports that for Halloween 2006 police forces have stepped up patrols to respond to such trouble making.
Halloween did not become a holiday in America until the 19th century, where lingering Puritan tradition meant even Christmas was scarcely observed before the 1800s. North American almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th centuries make no mention of Halloween in their lists of holidays. The transatlantic migration of nearly two million Irish following the Irish Potato Famine (1845–1849) brought the holiday and its customs to America. Scottish emigration from the British Isles, primarily to Canada before 1870 and to the United States thereafter, brought that country's own version of the holiday to North America.
When the holiday was observed in 19th-century America, it was generally in three ways. Scottish-American and Irish-American societies held dinners and balls that celebrated their heritages, with perhaps a recitation of Robert Burns' poem "Halloween" or a telling of Irish legends, much as Columbus Day celebrations were more about Italian-American heritage than Columbus. Home parties would center around children's activities, such as bobbing for apples and various divination games, particularly about future romance. And finally, pranks and mischief were common on Halloween.
The commercialization of Halloween in America did not begin until the 20th century, beginning perhaps with Halloween postcards, which were most popular between 1905 and 1915, and featured hundreds of different designs. Dennison Manufacturing Company, which published its first Hallowe'en catalog in 1909, and the Beistle Company were pioneers in commercially made Halloween decorations, particularly die-cut paper items. German manufacturers specialized in Halloween figurines that were exported to America in the period between the two world wars.
There is little primary documentation of masking or costuming on Halloween in America, or elsewhere, before 1900. Mass-produced Halloween costumes did not appear in stores until the 1930s, and trick-or-treating became a fixture of the holiday in the 1950s, although commercially made masks were available earlier.
In the United States, Halloween has become the sixth most profitable holiday (after Christmas, Mother's Day, Valentines Day, Easter, and Father's Day) for retailers. In the 1990s many manufacturers began producing a larger variety of Halloween yard decorations; prior to this a majority of decorations were homemade. Some of the most popular yard decorations are jack-o'-lanterns, scarecrows, witches, orange and purple string lights, inflatable decorations such as spiders, pumpkins, mummies, vampires and other monstrous creatures, and animatronic window and door decorations. Other popular decoration are foam tombstones and gargoyles. The sale of candy and costumes are also extremely important during this time period. Halloween is marketed not just to children but also to adults. According to the National Retail Federation, the most popular Halloween costumes for adults are, in order: witch, pirate, vampire, cat, and clown. On many college campuses, Halloween is a major celebration, with the Friday and Saturday nearest October 31 hosting many costume parties.
The National Confectioners Association reported, in 2005, that 80 percent of adults planned to give out candy to trick-or-treaters, and that 93 percent of children planned to go trick-or-treating.
Anoka, Minnesota, the self-proclaimed "Halloween Capital of the World," celebrates with a large civic parade. Salem, Massachusetts, also has laid claim to the title, though Salem has tried to separate itself from its history of persecuting witchcraft. Despite that, the city does see a great deal of tourism surrounding the Salem witch trials, especially around Halloween. Nearby Keene, New Hampshire, hosts the annual Pumpkin Fest each October which previously held the record for most lit jack-o'-lanterns at one time and place.
New York City hosts the United States' largest Halloween celebration, The Village Halloween Parade. Started by a Greenwich Village mask maker in 1973, the parade now attracts over two million spectators and participants as well as roughly four million television viewers each year. It is the largest participatory parade in the country if not the world, encouraging spectators to march in the parade as well. It is also the largest annual parade held at night.
In the state of Utah and throughout the world where members of the Mormon faith reside, Halloween is an occasion when the trunks of cars are decorated and the cars parked at the church where "trick-or-treaters" go from trunk to trunk and there are prizes for those best decorated, a phenomenon known as "trunk-or-treating" . Everyone brings treats e.g. hot apple cider, popcorn, baked goods, chili and hotdogs, to share. It is seen as an opportunity for the community to socialize.
In many towns and cities, trick-or-treaters are welcomed by lighted porch lights and jack-o'-lanterns. In some large or crime-ridden cities, however, trick-or-treating is discouraged, forbidden, or restricted to staged trick-or-treating events within one or more of the cities' shopping malls, in order to prevent potential acts of violence against trick-or-treaters. Even where crime is not an issue, many towns in the US have established specific hours where trick-or-treating is permitted, e.g. 5-7 pm or 5-8 pm, to discourage late-night trick-or-treating.
Those living in the country may hold Halloween parties, often with a bonfire or, in some years, the older Irish custom of building two bonfires, with the celebrants passing between them. These parties usually involve games (often traditional games like bobbing for apples, searching for candy in a similar manner to Easter egg hunting, or a snipe hunt), a haunted hayride (often accompanied by a scary story and one or more masked and costumed people hiding in the dark to jump out and scare the riders), and treats (usually a bag of candy and/or homemade treats). Scary movies may also be watched. Normally, the children are picked up by their parents at pre-determined times. However, it is not uncommon for these parties to include sleepovers.
Trick-or-treating may end early at night, but the nightlife thrives in many urban areas on Halloween. Halloween costume parties are also an opportunity for young adults to get together and share a keg and a good time. The local bars are also frequented by people wearing Halloween masks and risque costumes. Many bars and restaurants hold Costume Contests to attract customers to their establishment.
Further south, in Mexico, Halloween is primarily a 21st century phenomenon and also mostly confined to its largest urban areas. These celebrations have obviously been influenced by the American style and traditions which include children disguising themselves and visiting the houses of their neighbourhood in search primarily for candy. Though the "Trick or Treat" motif is also used, tricks are not generally played on those houses not giving away candy. Older crowds of teenagers and adults will sometimes organize Halloween themed parties though the observance of the Halloween party on the night of the 31st is sometimes changed for the nearest available weekend.
Halloween in Mexico also starts off three days of consecutive holidays, as it is followed by All Saint's Day and then the Day of the Dead or the "Día de los Muertos". This might explain why some of the first explanations given to children on the holiday followed a more traditional, Catholic & Mexican theme. The explanation (which is also sometimes used by groups opposed to Halloween to discredit the holiday) is that during October 31 all of the evil spirits are welcomed into this world. Meanwhile, on November 1 all of the "saintly" spirits make a visit to this world and then on November 2 all of the spirits of those who have passed away. It is rare to find someone in Mexico that will be able to identify Halloween's primarily pagan roots and most of the population will actually give the U.S.A. credit for the holiday.
Australia and New Zealand
In the southern hemisphere, Spring is in full force at the end of October, and the days are rapidly growing longer and brighter. This does not mesh well with the traditional Celtic spirit of Halloween, which relies on the atmosphere of the encroaching darkness of winter.
Halloween was not celebrated in England before the twentieth century, so it did not travel to Australia and New Zealand with British colonization. It has recently gained a measure of recognition, however, due to American cultural media influences. Over the past five years, Halloween's popularity had been increasing, however "trick or treating", is sometimes considered as being "American".
When Halloween is celebrated, in Australia, it can be called Mischief Night or Danger Night. On this night it is a day for children to create mischief by doing tricks or getting a treat, and also it is traditional to carve a jack-o-lantern.
Halloween is largely uncelebrated in the Caribbean. However, like Australia and New Zealand, the event is not unheard of in the Caribbean and is seeing some increase in popularity.
In some parts of the British West Indies, there are celebrations in commemoration of Guy Fawkes Night that occur during and around the time of Halloween. These celebrations include using firecrackers, blowing bamboo joints and performing other fiery activities.
BonaireOn the island of Bonaire, all the children of a town gather together in a group, and unlike most places, instead of trick-or-treating at people's houses, they trick-or-treat for sweets in the town shops.
The imagery surrounding Halloween is largely an amalgamation of the Halloween season itself, nearly a century of work from American filmmakers and graphic artists, and a rather commercialized take on the dark and mysterious. This art generally involves death, magic, or mythical monsters. Commonly-associated Hallowe'en characters include ghosts, ghouls, witches, vampires, bats, owls, crows, vultures, haunted houses, pumpkinmen, black cats, spiders, goblins, zombies, mummies, skeletons, werewolves, and demons. Particularly in America, symbolism is inspired by classic horror films, which contain fictional figures like Dracula, Frankenstein's monster, The Wolf Man, and The Mummy. Homes are often decorated with these symbols around Halloween.
The use of these colors is largely a result of advertising for the holiday that dates back for over a century. They tend to be associated with various parts of Halloween's imagery.
|Color ||Symbolism |
|Black||death, night, witches, black cats, bats, vampires|
|Orange||pumpkins, jack o' lanterns, Autumn, the turning leaves, fire|
|Purple ||night, the supernatural, mysticism|
|Green ||goblins, monsters|
|Red||blood, fire, evil, the devil|
The carved jack-o'-lantern, lit by a candle inside, is one of Halloween's most prominent symbols. Although there is a tradition in the British Isles of carving a lantern from a rutabaga, mangelwurzel, or turnip, the practice was first named and associated with Halloween in North America, where the pumpkin was available, and much larger and easier to carve. Many families that celebrate Halloween carve a pumpkin into a frightening or comical face and place it on their home's doorstep after dark.
Trick-or-treating and guising
The main event of modern US-style Halloween is trick-or-treating, in which children dress up in costume disguises and go door-to-door in their neighborhood, ringing each doorbell and yelling "trick or treat!" Although this resembles the older tradition of guising in Ireland and Scotland, ritual begging on Halloween does not appear in English-speaking America until the 20th century, and may have developed independently. The occupants of the house (who might themselves dress in a scary costume) will then hand out small candies, miniature chocolate bars, and sometimes even soda pop. Some American homes will use sound effects and fog machines to help set a spooky mood. Other house decoration themes (that are less scary) are used to entertain younger visitors. Children can often accumulate many treats on Halloween night, filling up entire pillow cases or shopping bags.
In Ireland, great bonfires were lit throughout the breadth of the land. Young children in their guises were gladly received by the neighbors with some "fruit, apples and nuts and of course sweets" for the "Halloween Party", whilst older male siblings played innocent pranks on bewildered victims.
In Scotland, children or guisers are more likely to recite "The sky is blue, the grass is green, may we have our Halloween" instead of "trick or treat!". They visit neighbours in groups and must impress the members of the houses they visit with a song, poem, trick, joke or dance in order to earn their treats. Traditionally, nuts, oranges, apples and dried fruit were offered, though sometimes children would also earn a small amount of cash, usually a sixpence. Very small children often take part, for whom the experience of performing can be more terrifying than the ghosts outside.
In England, trick or treating does take place, particularly in working class neighbourhoods. On the whole, however, it is frowned upon as at best a nuisance and at worst a menacing form of begging, and as a negative part of American global culture. In some areas households have started to put decorations on the front door to indicate 'trick-or-treaters' are welcome, the idea being that 'trick-or-treaters' don't approach a house that isn't 'participating'. Tricks play less of a role in modern Halloween, though Halloween night is often marked by vandalism such as soaping windows, egging houses or stringing toilet paper through trees. Before indoor plumbing was so widespread, tipping over or displacing outhouses was a popular form of intimidation. Casting flour into the faces of feared neighbors was also done once upon a time.
Typical Halloween costumes have traditionally been monsters such as vampires, ghosts, witches, and devils. In recent years, it has become common for costumes to be based on themes other than traditional horror, such as dressing up as a character from a TV show or movie, or choosing a recognizable face from the public sphere, such as a politician (in 2004, for example, George W. Bush and John Kerry were both popular costumes in America). In 2001, after the September 11 attacks, for example, costumes of, firefighters, police officers, and United States military personnel became popular. In 2004, an estimated 2.15 million children in the United States were expected to dress up as Spider-Man, the year's most popular costume.
"'Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" has become a common sight during Halloween in North America. Started as a local event in a Philadelphia suburb in 1950, and expanded nationally in 1952, the program involves the distribution of small boxes by schools to trick-or-treaters, in which they can solicit small change donations from the houses they visit. It is estimated that children have collected more than $119 million (US) for UNICEF since its inception. In 2006 UNICEF discontinued their Halloween collection boxes in parts of the world, citing safety and administrative concerns.
BIGresearch conducted a survey for the National Retail Federation in the USA and found that 53.3% of consumers planned to buy a costume for Halloween 2005, spending $38.11 on average (up 10 dollars from last year). They are also expected to spend $4.96 billion in 2006, up significantly from just $3.29 billion the previous year.
A child usually "grows out of" trick-or-treating by his or her teenage years. Trick-or-treating by teenagers is accepted, but generally discouraged with genial ribbing by those handing out candy. Teenagers and adults instead often celebrate Halloween with costume parties, bonfire parties, staying home to give out candy, listening to Halloween music, watching horror movies or scaring people.
Games and other activities
There are several games traditionally associated with Halloween parties. The most common is dooking or bobbing for apples, in which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water; the participants must use their teeth to remove an apple from the basin. A variant involves kneeling on a chair, holding a fork between the teeth and trying to drop the fork into an apple. Another common game involves hanging up treacle or syrup-coated scones by strings; these must be eaten without using hands while they remain attached to the string, an activity which inevitably leads to a very sticky face.
Some games traditionally played at Halloween are forms of divination. In Puicíní (pronounced "pooch-eeny"), a game played in Ireland, a blindfolded person is seated in front of a table on which several saucers are placed. The saucers are shuffled and the seated person then chooses one by touch. The contents of the saucer determine the person's life for the following year. A saucer containing earth means someone known to the player will die during the next year, a saucer containing water foretells travel, a coin means new wealth, a bean means poverty, etc. In 19th-century Ireland, young women placed slugs in saucers sprinkled with flour. The wriggling of the slugs and the patterns subsequently left behind on the saucers were believed to portray the faces of the women's future spouses. An Irish and Scottish form of divining one's future spouse is to carve an apple in one long strip, then toss the peel over one's shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name. This tradition has also survived among Irish and Scottish immigrants in the rural United States.
In North America, unmarried women were frequently told that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Halloween night, the face of their future husband would appear in the mirror. However, if they were destined to die before they married, a skull would appear. The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The telling of ghost stories and viewing of horror films are common fixtures of Halloween parties. Television specials with a Halloween theme, usually aimed at children, are commonly aired on or before the holiday while new horror films are often released theatrically before the holiday to take advantage of the atmosphere.Visiting a haunted house or a dark attraction are other Halloween traditions. Notwithstanding the name, such events are not necessarily held in houses, nor are the edifices themselves necessarily regarded to possess actual ghosts. A variant of this is the haunted trail, where the public encounters supernatural-themed characters or presentations of scenes from horror films while following a trail through a heavily wooded area or field. One of the largest Halloween attractions in the U.S.A. is Knott's Scary Farm in California, which features re-themed amusement park rides and a dozen different walkthrough mazes, plus hundreds of costumed roving performers.
Because the holiday comes in the wake of the annual apple harvest, candy apples (also known as toffee, taffy or caramel apples) are a common treat at Halloween. They are made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, and sometimes then rolling them in nuts. At one time candy apples were a common treat given to children, but this practice rapidly waned after widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples that they would pass out to children. While there is evidence of such incidents occurring they are very rare and have never resulted in any serious injuries. Nonetheless, many parents were under the assumption that the practice was common. At the peak of this hysteria, some hospitals were offering to x-ray children's Halloween haul at no cost in order to look for such items. Almost all of the very few Halloween candy poisoning incidents on record involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy, while there are occasional reports of children sticking needles in their own candy (and that of other children) more in an effort to get attention than cause any harm.
A Halloween custom which has survived unchanged to this day in Ireland is the baking (or more often nowadays the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish "báirín breac"). This is a light fruit cake into which a plain ring is placed before baking. It is said that whoever finds this ring will find his or her true love during the following year. See also King cake
Other foods associated with the holiday:
- candy corn
- bonfire toffee (in the UK)
- Toffee Apple (in Australia, England, Wales and Scotland, instead of "Candy Apples")
- hot apple cider
- roasted or popped corn
- roasted pumpkin seeds
- pumpkin pie and pumpkin bread
- "fun-sized" or individually wrapped pieces of small candy, typically in Halloween colors of orange, and brown/black.
- novelty candy shaped like skulls, pumpkins, bats, worms, etc.
Origin: Celtic observation of Samhain
According to what can be reconstructed of the beliefs of the ancient Celts, the bright half of the year ended around November 1 or on a Moon-phase near that date, or at the time of first frost. The day is referred to in modern Gaelic as Samhain ("Sow-in" or alternatively "Sa-ven", meaning: End of the Summer). After the adoption of the Roman calendar with its fixed months, the date began to be celebrated independently of the Moon's phases.
As October 31st is the last day of the bright half of the year, the next day also meant the beginning of Winter, which the Celts often associated with human death, and with the slaughter of livestock to provide meat for the coming Winter. The Celts also believed that on October 31, the boundary separating the dead from the living became blurred. There is a rich and unusual myth system at work here; the spirit world, the residence of the "Sídhe," as well as of the dead, was accessible through burial mounds. These mounds opened at two times during the year, Samhain and Beltane, making the beginning and end of Summer highly spiritually resonant.
The Celts' survival during the cold harsh winters depended on the prophecies of their priests and priestesses (druids), and the accurate prediction of how much food would be needed to sustain the people before the next harvest. They believed that the presence of spirits would aid in the ability to make accurate predictions about the coming year.
The exact customs observed in each Celtic region differ, but they generally involved the lighting of bonfires and the reinforcement of boundaries, across which malicious spirits might be prevented from crossing and threatening the community.
Like most observances around this season, warmth and comfort were emphasized, indulgence was not. Stores of preserved food were needed to last through the winter, not for parties.
Samhain mistaken as New Year
Popular literature over the last century has given birth to the near universal assumption that Samhain and folkways of Hallowe'en, was the "Celtic New Year". Both the work of scholarly historians and Neopagan writers have begun to scrutinize this assertion. The historian Ronald Hutton, in his study of the folk calendar of the British Isles points out that there are no references which attest to this usage earlier than the 18th century, neither in church nor civic records. Although it may be generally correct to refer to Samhain as "Summer's End", this point of descent into the year's darkness may require better proof for us to cite this "end" as also being a "beginning". On the other hand, there is a huge volume of proof of the western world, including late Celtia, as having begun their calendars either at the end of December or around March 25th at various periods back through and before Medieval times.
Norse Elven Blót
In the old Norse religion an event believed to occur around the same time of the year as Halloween was the álfablót (elven blót), which involved sacrifices to the elves and the blessing of food. The elves were powers connected to the ancestors, and it can be assumed that the blót related to a cult of the ancestors. The álfablót is also celebrated in the modern revival of Norse religion, Ásatrú.
Halloween and All Saints' Day
Halloween and All Saints Day are often mistaken but two different traditions.Pope Boniface IV established an anniversary dedicated to the Virgin Mary and the martyrs when he consecrated the Pantheon on May 13, 609 (or 610) as a day of worship and prayer to God. This Christian feast day was moved to November 1 from May 13 by Pope Gregory III in the eighth century in order to mark the dedication of the All Saints Chapel in Rome — establishing November 1 as All Saints Day and October 31 as All Hallows' Eve. Initially this change of date only applied to the diocese of Rome, but was extended to the rest of Western Christianity a century later by Pope Gregory IV in an effort to standardize liturgical worship. It was instituted by the Church to honor all the saints, known and unknown, and, according to Urban IV, to supply any deficiencies in the faithful's celebration of saints' feasts during the year. The All Saints Day for the Eastern Orthodox Church is still celebrated in the summer period (actually the Sunday 8 weeks after the Easter Day).
The feast day of All Souls Day, celebrated to commemorate those souls condemned temporarily to Purgatory, was inaugurated by Saint Odilo of Cluny, at the time the abbott of the influential monastery at Cluny, on November 2, 998. The observation of the holy day quickly spread to monastaries under his control in France and England, and from there to the Catholic Church in general.
The ways that Christian churches deal with Halloween are various. Most churches ignore Halloween and treat it as a merely secular tradition. For other Christians, the fact that Halloween and the Christian feast of All Saints Day are on two consecutive days has at times left them uncertain of how they should react towards this holiday. In the Anglican Church some dioceses have chosen to focus more on the traditions of All Saints Day, the day following Halloween, while some Protestants celebrate the holiday as Reformation Day, a day of prayer and traditional songs. 
The secular celebration of Halloween may loom larger in contemporary imagination than does All Saints Day. Some Christian churches commonly offer a fall festival or harvest-themed alternative to Halloween. Most Christians ascribe no doctrinal significance to Halloween, treating it as a purely secular entity devoted to celebrating "imaginary spooks" and handing out candy. Many Christians hold the view that the tradition is far from being "satanic" in origin or practice and that it holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parishoners' heritage.
Other Christians get very emotional about Halloween, rejecting the holiday because they believe it trivializes the occult and what they perceive as evil.  A response among some fundamentalist Christians in recent years has been the use of Hell houses or themed pamphlets (such as those of Jack T. Chick) which attempt to make use of Halloween as an opportunity for evangelism. Some fundamentalists consider Halloween to be completely incompatible with the Christian faith, due to "its preoccupation with the occult in symbols, masks and costumes," its origin as a Pagan "festival of the dead", and the fact that it is celebrated, albeit in a non-traditional form, by satanists and other occult groups. The tradition of discouraging Pagan celebrations and focusing attention on Christianity can be traced back to the eighth century when Pope Gregory III designated November 1st as All Saints' Day, a time to honor saints and martyrs. Some Christians even believe that All Saints was moved to November 1 "to counteract the ghouls, demons, and devils that were celebrated on October 31."  In more recent years, The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston has organized a "Saint Fest" on the holiday. Many Catholic churches have instituted the days before Nov. 1 as days of special devotion such as the tradition of "40 hours of adoration and prayer."
Others are concerned about the vandalism and destructive behavior that can occur on the holiday. As Halloween is a prime time for vandalism, sometimes unbalanced individuals choose that night to vandalize churches or cemeteries.
Objections to celebrating Halloween are not always limited to those of the Abrahamic religions. Some Wiccans feel that the tradition is offensive to "real witches" for promoting a stereotypical caricature of a witch. Some Wiccans and other Neopagans object to Halloween because they perceive it to be a "vulgarized, commercialized mockery" of the original Samhain rituals which are traditionally celebrated at October 31. However other Neopagans see it as a harmless holiday in which some of the old traditions are celebrated by the mainstream culture, albeit in a different way.
- ^ Simpson, John, Weiner, Edmund (1989). Oxford English Dictionary, second, London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2.
- ^ a b Hutton, Ronald (1996). Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. New York: Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 0-19-285-448-8.
- ^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. New York: Oxford University Press, 411. ISBN 0-19-514691-3.
- ^ "Mischief Night causes havoc across county", BBC, 2002-11-05. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
- ^ "Pumpkin passions", BBC, 2005-10-31. Retrieved on 2006-09-27.
- ^ http://bewing.wordpress.com/
- ^ http://halloween.monstrous.com/halloween_symbols.htm
- ^ http://www.hauntedbay.com/history/bobbing.shtml
- ^ http://www.123christians.com/christians/halloween/symbols/
- ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6093634.stm
- ^ Rogers, p. 49.
- ^ Anderson, Richard (2000). Antique Halloween Postcards and E-cards (HTML). shaktiweb.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
- ^ Dawn Kroma; Lou Kroma (n.d.). Beistle: An American Halloween Giant (HTML). Spookshows.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
- ^ Ledenbach, Mark B. (n.d.). A Brief History of Halloween Collectibles (HTML). halloweencollector.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
- ^ Skal, David J. (2002). Death Makes a Holiday: A Cultural History of Halloween. New York: Bloomsbury, 34. ISBN 1-58234-230-X.
- ^ Mikkelson, Barbara and David P.. "Halloween Loot.", 2006-10-29. Retrieved on 2006-10-29.
- ^ 2006 Halloween Consumer Intentions and Actions Survey. Washington, DC: The National Retail Federation.
- ^ Trick-or-treaters can expect Mom or Dad’s favorites in their bags this year. National Confectioners Association (2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
- ^ Fun Facts: Halloween. National Confectioners Association (2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
- ^ http://lds.about.com/od/activitiescommittee/a/act_truckotreat.htm
- ^ Morton, Ella. "Halloween doesn't stand a ghost of a chance with this spirit", Sydney Morning Herald, 2006-10-31. Retrieved on 2006-10-31.
- ^ "Halloween outfits 'create fear'", BBC News, 2006-09-18. Retrieved on 2006-10-31.
- ^ Tolley, Ellen, Krugman, Scott. "Good Triumphs over Evil for Most Popular Halloween Costume", National Retail Federation, 2004-10-04. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
- ^ Beauchemin, Genevieve, CTV.ca News Staff. "UNICEF to end Halloween 'orange box' program", CTV, 2006-05-31. Retrieved on 2006-10-29.
- ^ Grannis, Kathy; Scott Krugman (20 September 2006). As Halloween Shifts to Seasonal Celebration, Retailers Not Spooked by Surge in Spending (HTML). National Retail Federation. Retrieved on 31 October 2006.
- ^ Should Christians celebrate Halloween? (HTML). www.answers2prayer.org (n.d.). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
- ^ Bishop challenges supermarkets to lighten up Halloween (HTML). www.manchester.anglican.org (n.d.). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
- ^ Halloween and All Saints Day (HTML). newadvent.org (n.d.). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
- ^ Examples of literature representing the Christian perspective towards Halloween include Halloween: Satan's New Year (2006) by Billye Dymally, Halloween: Counterfeit Holy Day (2005) by Kele Gershom, and Halloween: What's a Christian to Do? (1998) by Steve Russo. An opposing viewpoint is found in The Magic Eightball Test: A Christian Defense of Halloween and All Things Spooky (2006) by Lint Hatcher.
- ^ a b Salem ‘Saint Fest’ restores Christian message to Halloween (HTML). www.rcab.org (n.d.). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
- ^ What's the difference between All Saints and All Souls (HTML). uscatholic.claretians.org (n.d.). Retrieved on 2006-10-29.
- ^ Reece, Kevin. "School District Bans Halloween", KOMO News, 2004-10-24. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
- Billye Dymally, Halloween: Satan's New Year, Infinity Pub (2006). ISBN 0741433877
- David J. Skal,Death Makes a Holiday: A Cultural History of Halloween. New York: Bloomsbury (2002), 34. ISBN 1-58234-230-X.
- Diane C. Arkins, Halloween: Romantic Art and Customs of Yesteryear, Pelican Publishing Company (2000). 96 pages. ISBN 1565547128
- Diane C. Arkins, Halloween Merrymaking: An Illustrated Celebration Of Fun, Food, And Frolics From Halloweens Past, Pelican Publishing Company (2004). 112 pages. ISBN 158980113X
- Phyllis Galembo, Dressed for Thrills: 100 Years of Halloween Costumes and Masquerade, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (2002). 128 pages. ISBN 0810932911
- Ronald Hutton, Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain, Oxford Paperbacks (2001). 560 pages. ISBN 0192854488
- Jean Markale, The Pagan Mysteries of Halloween: Celebrating the Dark Half of the Year (translation of Halloween, histoire et traditions), Inner Traditions (2001). 160 pages. ISBN 0892819006
- Lisa Morton, The Halloween Encyclopedia, McFarland & Company (2003). 240 pages. ISBN 078641524X
- Nicholas Rogers, Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, Oxford University Press (2002). 198 pages. ISBN 0195146913
- Jack Santino (ed.), Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life, University of Tennessee Press (1994). 280 pages. ISBN 0870498134
- David J. Skal, Death Makes A Holiday: A Cultural History of Halloween, Bloomsbury USA (2003). 224 pages. ISBN 1582343055
- Ben Truwe, The Halloween Catalog Collection. Portland, Oregon: Talky Tina Press (2003). ISBN 0970344856.
- Dymally, B. 2006. Halloween: Satan's New Year
- Gershom, K. 2005. Halloween: Counterfeit Holy Day
- Hatcher, L. 2006. The Magic Eightball Test: A Christian Defense of Halloween and All Things Spooky
- Russo, R. 1998. Halloween: What's a Christian to Do?
- Phil Phillips, Halloween and Satanism, Infinity Pub (1987). ISBN 0741433877